2021年10月17日 星期日
基于果实解剖性状的伞形科阿米芹族葛缕子亚族(Carinae)的数量分类
Quantitative classification of Carinae in Ammineae of Apiaceae based on fruit anatomical characters
2020年 第29卷 第5期 页码[30-40]    下载全文[8.8MB]  
摘要

采用石蜡制片法,对产于中国的伞形科(Apiaceae)阿米芹族(Ammineae)葛缕子亚族(Carinae)7属26种4变种1变型以及作为外类群的西风芹亚族(Seselinae)2属6种的果实横切面解剖结构进行了观察,并选择18个结构特征作为数量分类性状,进行了系统聚类分析和主成分分析;根据数量分类结果提出了部分类群的分类处理建议。观察结果显示:供试种类的果实横切面在果体形状和大小、背棱和侧棱的形状和大小、果棱发达程度、外果皮和中果皮的结晶和色素块的形态等特征上呈现出多样化的特点,少数种类的某些果实解剖特征呈现出特殊性,其中,仅柴胡属(Bupleurum Linn.)种类和山茴香(Carlesia sinensis Dunn)的果实几不压扁,仅鸭儿芹(Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk.)的果体腹面有隐棱,仅山茴香的油管沿果体连续分布。聚类分析结果显示:供试种类可分为5类,其中,山茴香、藁本属(Ligusticum Linn.)种类、鸭儿芹、西风芹属(Seseli Linn.)种类各自聚为一类;柴胡属、茴芹属(Pimpinella Linn.)、丝瓣芹属(Acronema Falconer ex Edgew.)、阿米芹属(Ammi Linn.)和小芹属(Sinocarum H. Wolff ex R. H. Shan et F. T. Pu)5属的种类聚为一类(含5组),其中,尖瓣芹(Acronema chinense Wolff)、阿米芹〔Ammi visnaga (Linn.) Lam.〕和钝瓣小芹〔Sinocarum inocarum cruciatum (Franch.) Wolff ex R. H. Shan et F. T. Pu〕各自聚为组A、组B和组C,组D包含茴芹属和丝瓣芹属的种类,组E包含柴胡属的种类及紫茎小芹〔S. coloratum (Diels) Wolff ex R. H. Shan et F. T. Pu〕。主成分分析结果显示:前6个主成分的累计贡献率达到86.217%,其中第1主成分的贡献率达到36.561%,以背部果棱形状、侧棱形状、每果棱中维管束的数量、腹面是否有隐棱4个性状的绝对权重值均较高;总体上看,果棱、果体形状和分泌结构3大类9个解剖性状对阿米芹族的数量分类具有重要意义。依据数量分类结果,认为葛缕子亚族乃至阿米芹族的分类具有不自然性,其中,鸭儿芹和山茴香属(Carlesia Dunn)的分类地位应予提升,丝瓣芹属与茴芹属的关系以及小芹属下的分类有待进一步明晰;此外,西风芹亚族中西风芹属的界限和分类地位需要重新考虑。

Abstract

Anatomical structures of fruit transection of Carinae (26 species, 4 varieties and 1 form. in 7 genera) in Ammineae of Apiaceae, and Seselinae (6 species in 2 genera) as the outgroup were observed by using paraffin section method; 18 structural characteristics were selected as quantitative classification characters, the system cluster analysis and the principal component analysis were carried out; according to the results of quantitative classification, some classification suggestions were put forward. The results show that the fruit transection of tested species show diversified traits in characteristics of shape and size of mericarp body, shape and size of dorsal and lateral ribs, developed degree of ribs, crystals and pigment piece morphology of exocarp and mesocarp, etc., a few species show the particularity in some anatomical characters of fruit, in which, only fruits of species in Bupleurum Linn. and Carlesia sinensis Dunn are hardly compressed, only Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk. with hidden ribs in ventral side of mericarp body, only C. sinensis fruit with successive distributing vitta along the mericarp body. The result of cluster analysis shows that the test species can be divided into 5 categories, in which, C. sinensis, species in Ligusticum Linn.,  C. japonica and species in Seseli Linn. are separately clustered into category; species in 5 genera of Bupleurum, Pimpinella Linn., Acronema Falconer ex Edgew., Ammi Linn. and Sinocarum H. Wolff ex R. H. Shan et F. T. Pu are clustered into one category (including 5 groups), in which, Acronema chinense Wolff, Ammi visnaga (Linn.) Lam. and Sinocarum cruciatum (Franch.) Wolff ex R. H. Shan et F. T. Pu are grouped into group A, group B and group C, respectively, group D includes species in Pimpinella and Acronema, group E includes species in Bupleurum and S. coloratum (Diels) Wolff ex R. H. Shan et F. T. Pu. The result of principal component analysis shows that the accumulative contribution rate of the first 6 principal components is 86.217%, in which, the contribution rate of the first principal component is 36.561%, and the absolute weight values of 4 characters of shape of the dorsal rib, shape of the lateral rib, number of vascular bundle in each rib, with or without hidden ribs in ventral side are all higher; in general, there are great significance of 9 anatomical characters in 3 types of rib, mericarp body shape and secretory structure to quantitative classification of Ammineae. According to results of quantitative classification, it is considered that classification of Carinae and even Ammineae is unnatural, in which, the taxonomic position of Cryptotaenia japonica and Carlesia Dunn should be promoted, the relationship between Acronema and Pimpinella, and the classification of species in Sinocarum need to be further clarified; in addition, the borderline and taxonomic status of Seseli in Seselinae need to be reconsidered.

关键词伞形科; 阿米芹族; 葛缕子亚族; 分生果; 解剖性状; 数量分类
Key wordsApiaceae; Ammineae; Carinae; schizocarp; anatomical characters; quantitative classification
作者刘芳1, 惠红2, 宋春凤2, 刘启新2
所在单位1. 宿州职业技术学院, 安徽 宿州 234101; 2. 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园), 江苏 南京 210014
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基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(30370102); 安徽省2018年高校优秀青年人才支持计划重点项目(gxyqZD2018109); 江苏省植物资源研究与利用重点实验室开放基金项目(JSPKLB201834)