2018年8月17日 星期五
重庆金佛山地区野生药食两用植物的民族植物学研究
Ethnobotanical study on wild medicinal and edible plants in Jinfo Mountain region of Chongqing City
2018年 第27卷 第1期 页码[100-111]
摘要

运用民族植物学的研究方法,通过关键信息报告人访谈法以及与自然教育相结合的问卷调查法,对重庆金佛山地区居民利用野生药食两用植物的种类及传统知识进行了调查和研究。结果显示:金佛山地区居民常用的野生药食两用植物共55科100属117种(含变种和变型),其中以蔷薇科(Rosaceae)(15种)、菊科(Asteraceae)(13种)和百合科(Liliaceae)(11种)种类较多。根据食用价值,该地区药食两用植物可以分为茶饮类(代茶类54种和药酒类18种)、野菜类(46种)、野果类(水果类24种和坚果类2种)、调味品类(5种)和淀粉类(3种)。根据药食两用植物的食用部位,食用部位为嫩茎叶(32种)、根(31种)和果(29种)的种类较多,食用部位为叶(嫩叶)(14种)和全株(10种)的种类也较多,其他食用部位的种类较少。该地区药食两用植物共具有45种药效,其中具清热、解毒、祛风湿、止痛、滋补、止血、止咳、活血、利尿、化痰、促消化和消肿等药效的种类较多。综合分析结果显示:金佛山地区居民拥有丰富的药食两用植物传统知识与该地区丰富的植物资源和自然气候条件以及当地居民保健治病的需求有关。该地区药食两用植物的传统知识主要通过家庭中长辈向晚辈口授手传的方式传承。民族植物学知识的应用对金佛山地区居民在家乡生产创业、改善当地居民经济条件、减少留守儿童问题和促进地区经济发展有重要意义。

Abstract

Using ethnobotanical methods, species and traditional knowledge of wild medicinal and edible plants used by residents in Jinfo Mountain region of Chongqing City were investigated and researched by key information reporter interview method and questionnaire method combined with natural education. The results show that there are 117 species (containing variety and forma) of wild medicinal and edible plants belonging to 100 genera in 55 families in common use by residents in Jinfo Mountain region, in which, there are more species in Rosaceae (15 species), Asteraceae (13 species), and Liliaceae (11 species). According to edibleness, medicinal and edible plants in this region can be divided into tea and drinking type (including 54 species of substituting tea type and 18 species of medicinal liquor type), wild vegetable type (46 species), wild fruit type (including 24 species of fruit type and 2 species of nut type), flavoring type (5 species), and starch type (3 species). According to edible part of medicinal and edible plants, species taking tender shoot (32 species), root (31 species), and fruit (29 species) as edible parts are more, species taking leaf (including tender leaf) (14 species) and whole plant (10 species) as edible parts are also more, and species taking other edible parts are less. In this region, there are 45 kinds of medicinal effects of medicinal and edible plants, in which, species with heat-clearing, detoxifying, treating rheumatism, relieving pain, nourishing, hemostasis, relieving cough, invigorating the circulation of blood, diuresis, eliminating phlegm, promoting digestion, and relieving inflammation are more. The comprehensive analysis result shows that residents in Jinfo Mountain region have rich traditional knowledge of medicinal and edible plants, which is related to rich plant resources and natural climate conditions in this region, and to needs of keeping health and treating illness for local residents. The succession of traditional knowledge of medicinal and edible plants in this region is mainly through oral instruction and teaching by the elder to the yonger in family. The application of ethnobotanical knowledge has great significance for residents in Jinfo Mountain region creating hometown production entrepreneurship, improving economic conditions of local residents, reducing the problems of left-behind children, and promoting regional economic development.
 

 

关键词金佛山地区; 药食两用植物; 民族植物学; 自然教育
Key wordsJinfo Mountain region; medicinal and edible plants; ethnobotany; natural education
作者王静1, 彭书明2, 朱诗琪2, 苏万友3, 杨其亮2
所在单位1. 成都大学建筑与土木工程学院, 四川 成都 610106; 2. 成都理工大学环境学院, 四川 成都 610059;3. 重庆市南川区马嘴实验学校, 重庆 408400
点击量117
基金项目国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(31600253); 国家自然科学基金面上项目(3137070605); 国家科学技术部国际科技合作计划专项(2013DFA21690)