2024年6月17日 星期一
论植物园的活植物收集
On living collections in botanical garden
2005年 第14卷 第1期 页码[49-53]    下载全文[0.8MB]  
摘要

对植物园活植物收集评价、引种中的取样方法和迁地保护种群大小等问题进行了论述。对活植物收集的评价包括科学性和代表性,最具有科学意义的是经过调查从野外收集的有完整记录的材料,其次是从植物园等机构引种的有记录的材料,再次是从各地引种的基本上无记录的材料。根据收集物的代表性可分为具有保护意义的收集和保护性收集。取样技术主要针对保护性收集而言,要求收集样本能涵盖该物种 95%以上、频率大于 5%的等位基因。活植物收集种群的大小应从科学性和现实性二方面来考虑,对植物园里大量的具有保护意义的收集,其种群大小为乔木 10~20,灌木 40~50,草本 100~200;对于保护性收集则至少为乔木 50~100,灌木 200株或更多,草本 300~500株以上。另外,对当前植物园活植物收集圃建设的一些重要问题也进行了探讨。

Abstract

The evaluation criteria of living collections, sampling principles for plant introduction and the appropriate population size for ex-situ conservation in botanical garden are discussed. Scientific and representative values are major aspects of evaluation. Collections from natural populations with completed field records are the most valuable ones. Material introduced from botanical gardens, nurseries and other institutions with records is appropriate. Plants obtained from markets and other sources without records are less significant and can mainly for decoration and display in the recreation areas of the garden. Collections in botanical garden can be divided into two groups, collections with conservation value and collections for conservation, by their representative value. Most collections in botanical garden are collections with conservation value and only the collections with more than 95% of all eles with > 5% frequency of the species. Usually, it should be established by sampled for several times. Plant species can be scientific measurements for botanical garden practice were suggested. The size of population of collections should be determined from two, scientific and realistic, aspects. For most part of the collections with conservation value the population size can be 10-20 individuals for trees, 40-50 for shrubs and 100-200 for herbaceous plants. For conservation collections it shouldbe, at least, 50-100 for trees, 200 or more for shrubs and 300- 500 or more for herbaceous plants. Several key issues of the construction of living collections in botanical gardens are discussed.

关键词植物园; 引种; 活植物收集; 取样方法; 最小种群;
Key wordsbotanical garden; plant introduction; living collection; sampling method; minimum
作者贺善安,顾姻,於虹,褚瑞芝
所在单位江苏省中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园),江苏省植物迁地保护重点实验室,江苏南京210014
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基金项目中国生物多样性保护基金会植物园专业委员会资助项目;