2021年10月27日 星期三
西双版纳傣族庭院植物的民族植物学研究
Study on ethnobotany of homegarden plants of Dai nationality in Xishuangbanna
2021年 第30卷 第2期 页码[59-67]    下载全文[0.7MB]  
摘要

运用野外植物调查法和关键人物访谈法,调查西双版纳勐腊县勐仑镇曼仑、曼安、曼勒和曼纳伞4个傣寨庭院植物的栽培及利用情况,并结合文献分析1985年至2020年曼仑庭院植物的变化情况。结果表明:4个傣寨庭院植物种类丰富,共有86科241属317种(含变种、变型和品种,下同),其中,观赏类植物最多(152种),药用类、蔬菜类和果树类植物也较多,分别有93、81和41种。4个傣寨共同的庭院植物仅32种,相似性指数为6.14,说明不同傣寨的庭院植物种类差异较大。经济条件和居住环境对庭院植物种类有影响,即经济条件较好、离城镇较近的傣寨种植的观赏类植物最多,曼仑和曼安的庭院植物中观赏类植物分别占51.1%和44.2%,而经济条件较差、离城镇较远的傣寨的庭院植物以药用类和蔬菜类植物居多,曼勒和曼纳伞的庭院植物中,药用类植物分别占40.4%和45.2%,蔬菜类植物分别占38.3%和48.8%。与1985年相比,2020年曼仑庭院植物减少了78种,其中,观赏类植物减少了109种,新增了85种,变幅最大;药用类、蔬菜类、粮食/淀粉类、果树类和材用类植物分别减少了35.1%、27.6%、75.0%、14.3%和56.8%;文化类植物保持的最好,增加了3种,相似性指数为66.67。综合上述研究结果:傣族庭院植物的种类丰富,且以观赏类、药用类和蔬菜类植物种类居多,但不同傣寨和不同年份间存在较大差异。随着生活水平的提高,观赏类植物占比增加,而粮食/淀粉类和材用类等庭院植物减少,这些物种的消失导致与之相随的传统知识的消失。

Abstract

 Cultivation and utilization of homegarden plants in 4 Dai villages (Manlun, Man’an, Manle, and Mannasan) of Menglun Town in Mengla County of Xishuangbanna were investigated by field investigation and key reporter interview methods; and combined with literatures, the change of homegarden plants in Manlun from 1985 to 2020 was analyzed. The results show that homegarden plant species in 4 Dai villages are rich, with 317 species (including variety, form, and cultivar, the same below) belonging to 241 genera in 86 families, in which, species number of ornamental plants are the largest (152 species), and that of medicinal plants, vegetables, and fruit tree plants are also relatively large, which are 93, 81, and 41 species, respectively. There are only 32 species of common homegarden plants among these 4 Dai villages, with a Jaccard index of 6.14, indicating that the homegarden plant species in different Dai villages are quite different. Economic condition and living environment have impacts on homegarden plant species, that is, the better the economic condition and the closer to the town, the more ornamental plants are cultivated in Dai village. For example, ornamental plants account for 55.1% and 44.2% of homegarden plants in Manlun and Man’an, respectively. However, medicinal plants and vegetables are mostly cultivated in Dai villages with poorer economic condition and farther distance to town. In Manle and Mannasan, medicinal plants account for 40.4% and 45.2%, and vegetables account for 38.3% and 48.8% of homegarden plants, respectively. Compared with 1985, homegarden plants in Manlun decrease by 78 species in 2020, in which, ornamental plants has the largest variation degree with 109 species decreasing and 85 new species increasing; medicinal plants, vegetables, grain/starch plants, fruit tree plants, and timber plants decrease by 35.1%, 27.6%, 75.0%, 14.3%, and 56.8%, respectively; cultural plants are the best maintained, which increase by 3 species with a Jaccard index of 66.67. In summary, this study shows that plant species in Dai homegardens are abundant, and most of them are ornamental plants, medicinal plants, and vegetables, but there are large differences among different Dai villages and different years. With the improvement of living standards, the proportion of ornamental plants increases, while homegarden plants including grain/starch plants and timber plants decrease, which is accompanied by a loss of traditional knowledge.

关键词傣族; 庭院植物; 民族植物学; 传统知识
Key wordsDai nationality; homegarden plants; ethnobotany; traditional knowledge
作者肖云学1, 李春艳2, 许又凯1
所在单位1. 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南 西双版纳 666303; 2. 普洱学院, 云南 普洱 665000
点击量7169
下载次数126
基金项目国家生态环境部生物多样性保护重大工程专项(ZDGC2019-003-01-B01)