2019年10月17日 星期四
不同灌水量对2个蓝浆果品种幼苗生长和耗水规律的影响及相关性分析
Effects of different irrigation amounts on seedling growth and water consumption pattern of two cultivars of Vaccinium spp. and correlation analysis
2017年 第26卷 第1期 页码[30-38]    下载全文[1.1MB]  
摘要

以兔眼蓝浆果(Vaccinium ashei Reade)品种‘Brightwell’和南方高丛蓝浆果(V. corymbosum hybrids)品种‘Misty’为研究对象,研究不同灌水量〔50%WC、75%WC、100%WC(CK)和125%WC〕(WC为单株日耗水量)对幼苗生长、单株耗水量的日变化和月变化、单株净增干质量、总耗水量和水分利用效率的影响,并采用回归分析法对单株月耗水量与月均温和月均空气相对湿度的相关性进行分析。结果显示:随灌水量提高,2个品种幼苗的地径、单株枝长和单株总叶面积的增量总体上均不断增大,但单株枝长增量略有波动;单株根、茎、叶和总干质量总体上均逐渐增大,根冠比则逐渐减小;单株净增干质量和总耗水量均随灌水量提高而增大,而水分利用效率则在50%WC条件下最低、在75%WC条件下最高。在相同灌水量条件下,品种‘Misty’幼苗的地径和单株枝长的增量,单株茎、叶和总干质量及水分利用效率基本上均高于品种‘Brightwell’,而其单株总叶面积增量、单株根干质量、根冠比和总耗水量却基本上低于后者。在7月份至9月份,2个品种幼苗单株耗水量的日变化基本上呈单峰曲线,但其单株耗水量峰值出现的时间段则因品种和灌水量不同而异;在全天不同时间段和不同月份,2个品种幼苗的单株耗水量均随灌水量提高而增大;在相同灌水量条件下,品种‘Misty’幼苗的单株耗水量总体上低于品种‘Brightwell’。回归分析结果表明:2个品种幼苗的单株月耗水量与月均温呈显著或极显著正相关,与月均空气相对湿度呈显著或极显著负相关。综合分析结果表明:蓝浆果幼苗的耗水量不但与品种特性有关,而且还受到土壤水分含量、气温和空气湿度的影响;在相同灌水量条件下,品种‘Brightwell’幼苗的耗水量高于品种‘Misty’,但其水分利用效率却低于后者。在中国南方地区,品种‘Brightwell’和‘Misty’的适宜灌水量分别为100%WC和75%WC。

Abstract

Taking cultivar ‘Brightwell’ of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) and cultivar ‘Misty’ of southern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum hybrids) as research objects, effects of different irrigation amounts of 50%WC, 75%WC, 100%WC (CK) and 125%WC (WC represents daily water consumption per plant) on seedling growth, changes in diurnal and monthly water consumption per plant, net increment of dry weight per plant, total water consumption and water use efficiency were investigated, and correlations of monthly water consumption per plant with monthly mean temperature and monthly mean air relative humidity were analyzed by regression analysis method. The results show that with increasing of irrigation amount, increments of basal diameter, branch length per plant and total leaf area per plant of two cultivar seedlings increase continuously in general, but increment of branch length per plant has a slightly fluctuation; dry weights of root, stem, leaf and whole seedling per plant increase gradually in general, while root/shoot ratio decreases gradually; net increment of dry weight per plant and total water consumption both elevate with increasing of irrigation amount, while water use efficiency is the lowest under 50%WC condition and the highest under 75%WC condition. Under the same irrigation amount condition, increments of basal diameter and branch length per plant, dry weights of stem, leaf and whole seedling per plant, and water use efficiency of cultivar ‘Misty’ seedling are basically higher than those of cultivar ‘Brightwell’, while increments of total leaf area per plant, dry weight of root per plant, root/shoot ratio and total water consumption are basically lower than those of the latter. Diurnal changes in water consumption per plant of two cultivar seedlings are basically unimodal curves from July to September, but their peak values appear at different time periods according to different cultivars and irrigation amounts. In different time periods of a day or in different months, water consumption per plant of two cultivar seedlings both elevate with increasing of irrigation amount, that of cultivar ‘Misty’ seedling is generally lower than that of cultivar ‘Brightwell’ under the same irrigation amount condition. The regression analysis result shows that monthly water consumption per plant of two cultivar seedlings appear significant or extremely significant positive correlations with monthly mean temperature, but appear significant or extremely significant negative correlations with monthly mean air relative humidity. The comprehensive analysis result shows that water consumption of Vaccinium spp. seedling is not only related to cultivar characteristics, but also influenced by soil water content, air temperature and air humidity. Under the same irrigation amount condition, water consumption of cultivar ‘Brightwell’ seedling is relatively higher than that of cultivar ‘Misty’, but its water use efficiency is lower than that of the latter. In southern China, the optimum irrigation amounts of cultivar ‘Brightwell’ and ‘Misty’ are 100%WC and 75%WC, respectively.
 

关键词蓝浆果; 灌水量; 生长; 耗水量; 相关性分析
Key wordsVaccinium spp.; irrigation amount; growth; water consumption; correlation analysis
作者尹对, 於虹, 姜燕琴, 曾其龙, 蒋佳峰, 韦继光
所在单位江苏省中国科学院植物研究所(南京中山植物园), 江苏 南京 210014
点击量430
基金项目江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目〔CX(16)1016〕; 江苏省自然科学基金资助项目(BK20130733)