2021年4月23日 星期五
干旱胁迫及复水对菊芋生长及叶片光合和生理特性的影响
Effects of drought stress and rewatering on growth and leaf photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Helianthus tuberosus
2019年 第28卷 第4期 页码[49-57]    下载全文[1MB]  
摘要

以中国北方主栽菊芋(Helianthus tuberosus Linn.)品种‘青芋2号’(‘Qingyu No. 2’)为实验材料,采用盆栽人工控水的方法进行干旱胁迫和复水,对菊芋的生长指标以及叶片的叶绿素相对含量、光合参数和生理指标进行分析。结果表明:总体上看,除干旱胁迫初期外,重度干旱胁迫(T3)组菊芋的株高和节间长显著低于对照(CK)组,轻度干旱胁迫(T1)组的株高和节间长与CK组差异不显著;复水后,3个处理组的株高和节间长无明显变化。在干旱胁迫及复水期间,同一时间3个处理组及CK组间菊芋的茎粗几乎无显著差异。总体上看,随着胁迫时间延长,3个处理组菊芋叶片中净光合速率、水分利用效率和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性呈下降趋势,蒸腾速率先降低后升高,叶绿素相对含量和可溶性蛋白质含量无明显变化,气孔导度和胞间CO2浓度波动变化,总超氧化物歧化酶(T-SOD)活性明显升高。T1组菊芋叶片中过氧化物酶(POD)活性和脯氨酸(Pro)含量无明显变化,中度干旱胁迫(T2)和T3组的POD活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量先升高后降低。复水后,3个处理组菊芋叶片中净光合速率、叶绿素相对含量、MDA含量和可溶性蛋白质含量无明显变化;蒸腾速率、气孔导度和胞间CO2浓度先降低后升高,水分利用效率先升高后降低,T-SOD和CAT活性继续升高;T1和T2组的POD活性先降低后升高,T3组的POD活性则继续降低;T1组的Pro含量无明显变化,T2和T3组的Pro含量显著降低。总体上看,与CK组相比,3个处理组菊芋叶片中净光合速率、水分利用效率、CAT活性和可溶性蛋白质含量降低,蒸腾速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、T-SOD活性和MDA含量升高,叶绿素相对含量无明显变化;T1组的POD活性较低,T2和T3组的POD活性较高;T1组的Pro含量与CK组接近,T2和T3组的Pro含量在干旱胁迫初期低于CK组,之后高于CK组。上述研究结果显示:菊芋品种‘青芋2号’具有一定的抗旱性,但在长时间的重度干旱胁迫下则会受到不可逆的伤害。

Abstract

 Taking cultivar ‘Qingyu No. 2’ of Helianthus tuberosus Linn. cultivated mainly in northern China as experimental materials, drought stress and rewatering were carried out by potted and artificial water control method, growth indexes, and relative chlorophyll content, photosynthetic parameters, and physiological indexes of leaves of H. tuberosus were analyzed. The results show that in general, except the early stage of drought stress, plant height and internode length of H. tuberosus in severe drought stress (T3) group are significantly lower than those in the control (CK) group, and those in mild drought stress (T1) group have no significant difference with those in CK group. After rewatering, there is no obvious change in plant height and internode length in three treatment groups. During drought stress and rewatering periods, there is almost no significant difference in stem diameter among three treatment groups and CK group at the same time. Overall, with prolonging of stress time, net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, and catalase (CAT) activity of leaves of H. tuberosus in three treatment groups appear the trend of decrease, transpiration rate first decreases and then increases, relative chlorophyll content and soluble protein content have no obvious change, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration show a fluctuation change, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity increases obviously. Peroxidase (POD) activity and proline (Pro) content in leaves of H. tuberosus in T1 group show no obvious change, and POD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in moderate drought stress (T2) and T3 groups first increase and then decrease. After rewatering, net photosynthetic rate, relative chlorophyll content, MDA content, and soluble protein content in leaves of H. tuberosus in three treatment groups have no obvious change, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration first decrease and then increase, water use efficiency first increases and then decreases, T-SOD and CAT activities increase continuously. POD activity in T1 and T2 groups first decreases and then increases, while that in T3 group decreases continuously. Pro content in T1 group has no obvious change, while that in T2 and T3 groups decreases significantly. On the whole, compared with CK group, net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, CAT activity, and soluble protein content in leaves of H. tuberosus in three treatment groups decrease, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, T-SOD activity, and MDA content increase, while relative chlorophyll content has no obvious change; POD activity is lower in T1 group and higher in T2 and T3 groups. Pro content in T1 group is close to that of CK group, while that in T2 and T3 groups is lower and higher than that in CK group at the early and late stages of drought stress, respectively. The above results show that cultivar ‘Qingyu No. 2’ of H. tuberosus has a certain drought tolerance, but it will be irreversibly damaged under severe drought stress for a long time.
 

关键词菊芋; 干旱胁迫; 复水; 生长指标; 光合参数; 生理指标
Key wordsHelianthus tuberosus Linn.; drought stress; rewatering; growth index; photosynthetic parameter; physiological index
作者赵孟良a,b, 赵文菊a, 郭怡婷a, 钟启文a,b, 任延靖a,b
所在单位青海大学: a. 农林科学院 青海省蔬菜遗传与生理重点实验室; b. 三江源生态和高原农牧业国家重点实验室, 青海 西宁 810016
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基金项目青海省科学技术厅重点实验室项目(2017-ZJ-Y18); 青海省自然科学青年基金项目(2019-ZJ-979Q); 青海省农林科学院基金项目(2018-NKY-006; 2018-NKY-008); 青海省蔬菜遗传与生理重点实验室基金项目(Sczdsys-2017-02)