2022年1月21日 星期五
不同化学型芳樟叶精油及主成分含量的时间变化规律
Time change rule of contents of essential oil and its main compositions in leaves of different chemical types of Cinnamomum camphora var. linaloolifera
2012年 第21卷 第4期 页码[82-86]    下载全文[0.4MB]  
摘要

对不同化学型(包括芳樟型、桉樟型和脑樟型)芳樟(Cinnamomum camphora var. linaloolifera Fujita.)叶片精油含量及精油中主成分的相对含量在一年中不同月份的变异状况进行了分析,并分析了优良芳樟型无性系叶片精油含量及其主成分芳樟醇的相对含量在 6 月份至 12 月份以及全天不同时段内的变化规律。 结果表明:全年各月份不同化学型芳樟叶片精油含量和精油中主成分相对含量均有差异。 其中,叶片精油含量的变化规律相似,即在生长季节均较高、非生长季节均较低,且在5 月份和7 月份至9 月份都处于较高水平。 精油中主成分含量的变化规律较复杂;芳樟型芳樟精油的主成分芳樟醇的相对含量在 6 月份最高,随后略有下降但直到 12 月份变化幅度均不大;脑樟型芳樟精油的主成分樟脑的相对含量在 7 月份最高,其他月份降低但差异不大;桉樟型芳樟精油的主成分1,8-桉叶油素的相对含量在 4 月份最高,随后下降,6 月份后趋于平稳。 在 6 月份至 12 月份间,优良芳樟型无性系叶片精油含量在 9 月份最高,12 月份降至最低;而精油中芳樟醇相对含量则在 9 月份最低,12 月份升至最高。 全天不同时段优良芳樟型无性系叶片精油含量和芳樟醇相对含量有明显差异;叶片精油含量在早晨最低,日出后逐渐升高,在 16:00 至 17:00 时段达到最高;而芳樟醇相对含量则在早晨最高,其他时段略有降低但变化幅度不大。 综合分析结果表明:芳樟叶片的适宜采收月份为 8 月份至 9 月份,每天 8:00 至 17:00 均可采收。

Abstract

The variation status of essential oil content and relative content of main compositions in essential oil from leaves of different chemical types ( including linalool-, cineol- and camphora-type) of Cinnamomum camphora var. linaloolifera Fujita. at different months in a whole year was analyzed, and the change rule of essential oil content and relative content of its main composition linalool in leaves of the excellent linalool-type clones in June to December and at different times in a whole day was also analyzed. The results show that essential oil content and relative content of main compositions in essential oil from leaves of different chemical types have differences among different months in a whole year. In which, there is a similar change regulation in essential oil content, that is, higher in growing season and lower in non-growing season with a higher level in May and from July to September. Change regulation of relative content of main composition in essential oil is complex. Relative content of linalool, which is the main composition in essential oil from leaves of linalool-type, reaches the highest in June, then descends slightly with a little change until December. That of camphora, which is the main composition in essential oil from leaves of camphora-type, reaches the highest in July, then decreases in other months but only with a little difference. That of 1,8-cineol, which is the main composition in essential oil from leaves of cineol-type, reaches the highest in April, then decreases and keeps steadily after June. From June to December, essential oil content in leaves of the excellent linalool-type clones reaches the highest in September, then decreases to the lowest in December, but relative content of linalool in essential oil is the lowest in September and increases to the highest in December. Essential oil content and relative content of linalool in leaves of the excellent linalool-type clones have obvious difference at different times in a whole day. The essential oil content is the lowest in the morning, increases gradually after sunrise, and reaches the highest in 16:00 to 17:00. While relative content of linalool in essential oil is the highest in the morning and decreases slightly but with a little change range in other times. The result of comprehensive analysis indicates that suitable collection month of leaves of C. camphora var. linaloolifera is from August to September, and suitable collection time in a day is from 8:00 to 17:00.
 

关键词芳樟; 化学型; 叶精油; 主成分; 变化规律
Key wordsCinnamomum camphora var. linaloolifera Fujita.; chemical type; essential oil in leaf; main composition; change rule
作者张国防, 冯娟, 于静波, 凡辉, 张春, 黄诗晓
所在单位福建农林大学林学院, 福建 福州 350002
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下载次数254
基金项目福建省自然科学基金资助项目(2010J01064)