2021年4月23日 星期五
江西省药用维管植物的分布特征和保护现状分析
Analyses on distribution characteristics and conservation status of medicinal vascular plants in Jiangxi Province
2020年 第29卷 第3期 页码[50-57]
摘要

依据江西省药用维管植物名录和迁地栽培数据,结合部分野外调查结果,采用GIS图层叠加分析法和Dobson筛除算法,对江西省药用维管植物的数量、分布格局和迁地保护现状等进行了分析。结果表明:江西省共分布有药用维管植物194科972属2 620种,包括被子植物165科912属2 522种、裸子植物5科19属28种、蕨类植物24科41属70种;包含种数较多的科有菊科(Asteraceae)、豆科(Fabaceae)、蔷薇科(Rosaceae)、唇形科(Lamiaceae)、禾本科(Poaceae)和兰科(Orchidaceae)等,包含种数较多的属有悬钩子属(Rubus Linn.)、蓼属(Polygonum Linn.)、珍珠菜属(Lysimachia Linn.)、冬青属(Ilex Linn.)和铁线莲属(Clematis Linn.)等。从分布格局看,江西省94个县(市、区)有药用维管植物1 206~1 968种,其中,位于山区的县(市、区)分布的种类较多,而位于中北部平原区域的县(市、区)分布的种类较少。对分布热点区域的识别结果显示:以江西省药用维管植物总种数为基本数据,当种数占比达75%时,分布热点区域仅包括井冈山市和资溪县,这2个县(市)辖域内均设有国家级自然保护区;当种数占比达100%时,分布热点区域包括40个县(市、区),其中30个县(市、区)辖域内设有国家级或省级自然保护区,这些热点县(市、区)共分布有药用维管植物2 538种,占江西省药用维管植物总种数的96.9%。目前已迁地栽培和未迁地栽培的药用维管植物分别有1 705和915种,分别占总种数的65.1%和34.9%;在未迁地栽培的种类中有24种受威胁种类,包括极危种2种、濒危种7种和易危种15种。综合分析结果表明:江西省药用维管植物种数的分布格局整体呈现沿海拔较高的山区向海拔较低的平原区域逐渐递减的趋势,海拔较高的山区是药用维管植物资源保护的关键区域,设立自然保护区对维持江西省药用维管植物丰富度有重要意义。根据研究结果,为保护江西省野生药用维管植物资源,应加强就地保护力度,关注重点物种的迁地栽培。

Abstract

 Based on the list and ex situ cultivation data of medicinal vascular plants in Jiangxi Province and combined with some field investigation results, number, distribution pattern, and ex situ conservation status of medicinal vascular plants in Jiangxi Province were analyzed by using GIS layer overlay analysis and Dobson algorithm methods. The results show that there are 2 620 species of medicinal vascular plants belonging to 972 genera of 194 families in Jiangxi Province, including 2 522 species of angiosperms belonging to 912 genera of 165 families, 28 species of gymnosperms belonging to 19 genera of 5 families, and 70 species of pteridophytes belonging to 41 genera of 24 families; families containing more species include Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae and Orchidaceae, etc., and genera containing more species include Rubus Linn. Polygonum Linn., Lysimachia Linn., Ilex Linn. and Clematis Linn., etc. Regarding the distribution pattern, there are 1 206-1 968 species of medicinal vascular plants in 94 counties (cities, districts) of Jiangxi Province, in which, there are more species in counties (cities, districts) of mountainous area, while less species in counties (cities, districts) of northcentral plain area. The distribution hotspots recognition result shows that taking total species number of medicinal vascular plants in Jiangxi Province as basic data, when species number accounting for 75%, the distribution hotspots only include Jinggangshan City and Zixi County, and national nature reserves are set up in these 2 counties (cities); when species number accounting for 100%, the distribution hotspots include 40 counties (cities, districts), in which, national or provincial nature reserves are set up in 30 counties (cities, districts), and there are 2 538 species of medicinal vascular plants in these hotspot counties (cities, districts), accounting for 96.9% of total species number of medicinal vascular plants in Jiangxi Province. At present, there are 1 705 and 915 species of ex situ cultivated and non ex situ cultivated medicinal vascular plants, accounting for 65.1% and 34.9% of total species number, respectively; there are 24 threatened species among non ex situ cultivated species, including 2 critically endangered species, 7 endangered species and 15 vulnerable species. The comprehensive analysis result shows that distribution pattern of species number of medicinal vascular plants in Jiangxi Province shows a tendency of gradually decrease from mountainous area with higher altitude to plain area with lower altitude, and mountainous area with higher altitude is the key area for the conservation of medicinal vascular plant resources, meanwhile, establishing nature reserve is crucial for maintaining the richness of medicinal vascular plants in Jiangxi Province. Based on the results, in situ conservation should be strengthened and attention should be paid to ex situ conservation of key species to conserve wild medicinal vascular plant resources in Jiangxi Province.

关键词江西省; 药用维管植物; 分布格局; 物种丰富度; 分布热点区域; 迁地保护
Key wordsJiangxi Province; medicinal vascular plants; distribution pattern; species richness; distribution hotspot; ex situ conservation
作者单章建1,2,3, 阙灵4, 陈淑楠1, 张欣欣1, 曹岚1, 慕泽泾1
所在单位1. 江西中医药大学 中药资源与民族药研究中心, 江西 南昌 330004; 2. 中国科学院植物研究所 系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京100093;3. 中国科学院大学生命科学学院, 北京100049; 4. 北京师范大学经济与资源管理研究院, 北京 100875
点击量541
基金项目第四次全国中药资源普查资助项目(财社[2012]13号); 江西省中药资源普查植物分类资料及图片管理软件的整理整合研究项目(2014A013)