2024年7月24日 星期三
不同风信子品种在南京地区的物候期及生长特性分析
Analysis of phenophase and growth characteristics of different cultivars of Hyacinthus orientalis in Nanjing
2009年 第18卷 第4期 页码[66-71]    下载全文[0.8MB]  
摘要

对从荷兰引进的17个风信子(Hyacinthus orientalis L.)品种在南京地区的物候期、观赏特性和生长状况进行了调查分析。调查结果表明,17个风信子品种的耐寒性较强,出苗期最早在1月下旬,多数品种的出苗期在2月中下旬;绝大多数风信子品种的叶片展开期集中在3月14日至20日;花现色期多为2月底至3月初,第1朵花的开花期在3月中上旬;大部分品种的单花序开花持续时间和群体开花持续时间较长,分别达20~22d和27~31d。17个风信子品种的花均具有非常浓烈的香味,花蕾与花脉颜色相同,花色从花脉辐射至花瓣边缘并逐渐变淡,花色艳丽,观赏性强。少数品种具1个花枝,多数品种具2个花枝,花茎长度12.7~21.9cm,多数品种的花茎长度在17cm以上;主花序长度多在11cm以上,约占整个花茎长度的2/3;单花序花朵数为20~61。各品种的花瓣数和花药数基本一致,多以6为基数;17个风信子品种的花粉均有一定的萌发能力,其中9个品种的花粉萌发率较高,均超过40%。多数品种的叶片数为6或7,叶片长18~29cm,宽2.2~3.6cm。除品种‘阿姆斯特丹’、‘简波斯’和‘福特’外,其余品种均可以分生出籽球,其中,品种‘蓝星’、‘蓝夹克’和‘爱丽斯’的籽球分生能力最强,分生率达66%以上;不同风信子品种的籽球直径也各不相同,多数籽球直径较大,为3~5cm。结果显示,风信子可作为早春花卉在南京进行种植,但具体种植条件尚待深入研究。

Abstract

The phenophase, ornamental traits and growth status of seventeen cultivars of Hyacinthus rientalis  L. introduced from Netherlands were investigated and analyzed in Nanjing. The investigation results show that the cold tolerance of seventeen cultivars is stronger. The earliest emergence stage is in late January, and most cultivars' emergence is in mid and late February. Leaf expansion stage of most cultivars concentrates in the 14th to 20th March. The flower appearing colour stage of most cultivars is from the last of Feburary to the beginning of March, and flowering stage of the first flower is in early and mid March. Flowering duration of per in florescence and group of most cultivars is longer with 20- 22d and 27- 31d, respectively. Flower aroma is strong , colour off lower bud and vein is identical, and the flower colour radiates from vein to petal edge and becomes light gradually. The flower colour is brilliant and it so rnamental is strong. A  few cultivars have one flowering branch, and most cultivars have two flowering branches. The length of flowering branch is 12.7- 21.9cm,and that of most cultivars is above 17cm. Length of main inflorescence of most cultivars is over 11cm, and it counts 2/3 of the length of flowering branch. Flower number of per inflorescence is 20- 61. Petal and anther numbers of different cultivars are basically consistent, with a basic number of six for most cultivars. Pollen of seventeen cultivars has acertain germination ability, in which pollen germination rate of nine cultivars is higher, with a value over 40%.Leaf number of most cultivars is six or seven, and leaf length and width are 18-29cm and 2.2-3.6cm,respectively. Except cultivar `Amsterdam', `JanBos' and `Fondant', all other cultivars gene rate bulblets, in  which the ability of forming bulblet of  cultivar `BlueStar',` Blue Jacket'  and  `Aiolos' is stronger with a generation percentage over 66%. The bulblet diameter of different cultivars is also various, most bulblets have a bigger diameter of  3- 5cm.Therefore, H. orientalis can be planted in Nanjing as early spring flower, but  the practical planting condition requires further study.

关键词风信子; 品种; 南京; 生长特性; 物候期; 观赏特性;
Key wordsHyacinthus orientalis L.; cultivar; Nanjing; growth characteristics; phenophase; ornamental trait
作者王春彦,李玉萍,罗凤霞,王 玥,顾 晶
所在单位金陵科技学院园艺学院,江苏南京210038
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基金项目北京市重点花卉项目(ylhh2006002); 金陵科技学院科研基金项目(JIT-RCYJ-2007001); 国家林业局“948”项目(2009-4-12);